The region undertaken by large lakes like Superior, Michigan, Ontario, Huron, Erie and the St. Lawrence River in northern U.S. and southern Canada have mainly two kinds of climates such as Cold Level has summer temperatures averaging 5 º C and in winter of -15 º C.
The annual rainfall occurs in mm. are up to 300 mm, with natural vegetation and fauna native to a predominance of low vegetation consisting of mosses, lichens and some herbs. Lichens in the desert alone. Reindeer, silver foxes, polar bears. On the coast there are seals, walruses and penguins.
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It also presents the Transitional Temperate climate in winter presents temperature will average 6 ° C and in summer 20 º C. The annual precipitation has are between 500 and 1000 mm. Moreover, their vegetation and evergreen grass, thistle, thistles, grasses. Its fauna is composed of otters, beavers, rodents, vizcachas, partridges, bakers, lapwings, bison, etc.
On the other hand it presents in its attention to the Appalachians and the central plain that both parties have certain average altitude of 200-500 meters, and in other parts of 500-2000 meters.
2) Canada and the United States have significant mineral reserves, located in different geomorphic units in the case of the Appalachian Mountains and central plains are the coal and metal ore, intensely exploited in the steel and metal complex area .
As for fossil fuels, which are the main energy source for the U.S., it should be mentioned that this country has a third of the world’s coal reserves and half of natural gas. Instead, it must resort to imports in the case of oil, whose holding does not cover local consumption needs, despite producing, along with Canada, over the
20% of the world’s oil. Indeed, while the United States produces about 400 million tons of oil annually, during the same period, more than double.
United States and Canada have been greatly developed the capacity and the number of oil refineries, around which have generated substantial petrochemical. With respect to hydroelectric power, the United States and Canada are the world’s largest producers, the main headquarters are located in rivers Colombia, Colorado, Sacramento and Niagara Falls, United States, and the San Lorenzo River in Canada.
Another important source of energy, primarily in the United States, is the nuclear source: this country is that which has the largest installed nuclear power in the world. This is due to the availability of substantial reserves of radioactive minerals (uranium), the capital invested in both the public and the private for the development of the research tasks associated with the energy source and also linkages States together with the arms industry.
Anglo American fisheries.
United States and Canada are American countries stand out for their catches. It is justified by its enormous fishes: the presence of a continental shelf with shallow banks, the prevalence of cold-warm temperatures and the confluence of the cold Labrador currents and Greenland and the warm Gulf. Also the presence of forest wood suppliers of boats, plus the availability of capital for the sector.
Canada has major fishing port in St. John’s and Halifax, along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean off the rich bank of Newfoundland. Here are operated primarily cod, hake, tuna, lobster and various species of seafood. U.S. has its main production areas located in Cheseapeake (oysters and herring) in the Gulf of Mexico (prawns and mackerel) and on the Pacific coast of California, where he settled the important port of San Pedro (tuna, anchovies and sardines) .
Catches of both countries used in the manufacture of fishmeal and oils, canned and frozen products.
Anglo American Forestry
The scientific exploitation of the boreal forest of conifers and is a hallmark of North America, which reaches its greatest development in Canada. In this country, the main species exploited and are continually replanted pines, firs, larches, whose wood is used in construction, furniture, etc.
To the south and in North American territory, the forest leaves his passes to cold temperate deciduous forest which has been severely cut down to clear forests for crops and expand urban areas. Among other species, are operated beech, oak, walnut, chestnut and maple.
Overall, North American forests provide more than half of the newsprint and wood pulp (mechanical and chemical) in the world.
The mechanization is widespread in Canadian forests. They predominantly softwood, easier to transport, both by land (rail through the soil, frozen lakes and rivers) and for courses that cross in the region. The destination is the sawmills and pulp and paper industry.
The economic importance of forest based products is not limited to wood and paper. The products for pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, and flavorings, perfumes, essences, dyes, resins, additives and explain the interest in the forest products market.
In the United States, bio-industries and large laboratories annually spend huge sums on research and development processes of products of plant origin.
4) United States and Canada have a very high urbanization: More than 75% of the population lives in urban centers. American Urbanization, unlike Latin America, was strongly supported the establishment of industries and economic growth.
The evolution of the process in the USA is characterized by the formation of continuous population agglomerations are linking metropolitan areas among themselves to form the megalopolis. At the same time there is a dispersion of the population within urban areas themselves, as populations grow in areas more remote from the center of the city. This arises because of improvements in the transport system (new highways, light rail) and the relocation of factories and offices on the outskirts of the city.
Regarding recent changes in American cities, it was observed that the rate of growth of large cities is decreasing and increasing, however the dynamics of smaller cities such as Atlanta, Phoenix, Miami, Dallas, Houston. An important part of this growth is associated with the formation of a new industrial space.
Canadian cities, aligned to the south, controlling a regional catchment area that extends north. But Toronto, Montreal, industrial and commercial centers. It exerts its attraction throughout the nation. Together with small capital, Ottawa, are the focus of economic and political power in Canada.
The head of rail network, the proximity of mineral resources, there is a consumer market and increased work performed by the massive integration and location factors that brought the industry. The eastern states are the most diversified: textile industries coexist (textiles, clothing) with advanced technology industries. Pittsburgh and Cleveland are major steel centers. Chicago is a center diversified, with significant production machinery.
Recent Changes: The new industrial space.
In recent decades there was a crisis in the capitalist system requiring, among other important changes in industrial organization. In particular, it emphasizes the application of new technology to the production process and the emergence of new dynamic industrial sectors such as telecommunications, electronics, informatics, biotechnology and genetics industry. It has been said that the current industrial model before generating new products introduced changes in the way we produce, such as automation, creating machines that can produce goods other than the use of computers for product design, etc..
This technological revolution has led to strong changes in the industrial space, as the following three cases.
Changes in industrial location within the United States.
The scattering of parts of the global production process.
The training of scientific and technological parks
a) In the United States, one of the recent changes has been the declining importance of the industries located in the manufacturing belt. Its output step of representing two thirds of the total to only 40% of the country. On the one hand the reduction in demand for its products and the emergence of new global competitors in the steel, textile and automotive industries, gave rise to the closure of many plants and laying off significant numbers of workers. It affected the cities in which these branches were important, Pittsburg, Cleveland, Detroit, Buffalo.
In addition, other technology industries had some development in the manufacturing belt (especially in Boston), but the prime locations were southern states such as California, Florida or Texas. Dallas, Houston, Denver, Phoenix, Los Angeles and San Francisco were among the cities benefited from this new industrial establishment.
b) Another important feature of post-Fordist model in North America is that it allows the division into stages of production. These stages are, for example, product design, parts manufacturing, assembly, d the parts, quality control, research new technologies, marketing and advertising. Each of these stages have special requirements to locate in a certain place, so for example in product design requires the presence of industrial designers to investigate new technology scientists are needed for the assembly of parts is required that the cost of labor is the cheapest possible. Besides marketing centers need to be located in cities with facilities to conduct business.
For the fragmentation process stages can be accomplished, it is necessary to have an excellent communications network that allows monitoring, control and articulacio0n the whole process, and a cheap and efficient transport to facilitate the movement of products anywhere in the world.
As a result of these changes, several major U.S. companies dissatisfied certain stages of the production process. Sought higher profits in each stage installed in the world that gives more advantages.
C) A third special aspect of the production model is the creation of scientific and technological poles. These are areas where they are located especially the tasks of research on industrial technology. Perhaps the best known case is that of Silicon Valley (Silicon Valley) Santa Clara County in California in the San Fransisco Bay.
The global scientific complex originated after the Second World War, when they start agruparese microelectronics sector industries with the support of Stanford University, providing intellectual guidance. Five of the ten global industry companies are located there. In Silicon Valley there are computers and military equipment, software, communications equipment, components for aerospace industries. The presence of l university ensures the availability of advanced scientific knowledge necessary for the creation of products and research new manufacturing processes.
The main advantages of close contract that is generated between firms grouped are: The possibility of partnering to conduct research, to be in the place where technological innovations are generated, know the actions they undertake the competition and participate in a shared business environment.
San Jose is the largest urban center in the area south of San Francisco Bay, with 1.5 million inhabitants. Its growth was spectacular, from the generation of employment in Silicon Valley. With the arrival of immigrants the city expanded rapidly over land formerly used for agriculture. The transport system based on private car use, led to the emergence of environmental problems such as air pollution, noise and heavy highway congestion.